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【新華網】黑洞照片要“全球拍”——訪中科院南美天文中心主任王仲

文章來源:新華網 倪瑞捷   發布時間:2019-04-12  【字號:     】  

  首張黑洞照片吸引了全球目光。在智利工作的中國科學院南美天文中心主任王仲向新華社記者解答了照片誕生過程中的國際分工和技術難點。他說,沒有各國協同努力,就不可能有這項重大科學成果。

  王仲曾在美國哈佛-史密森天體物理學中心工作20多年。他首先解釋了黑洞“照片”的概念。他說,這里的“照片”指的是“事件視界”的毫米波射電圖像。黑洞的引力非常強,以至于周圍一定區域內連光也無法逃逸,這一區域被稱為“事件視界”。

  得益于得天獨厚的觀測條件,此次參與“事件視界望遠鏡”項目聯合觀測的8臺主要望遠鏡中,智利占了兩臺,即ALMA和APEX。其中,APEX是一臺單體射電望遠鏡,而ALMA則是由多達66個與APEX相似大小的射電望遠鏡組成的“望遠鏡陣列”。

  在王仲看來,國際合作與分工是取得這一科學成果的重要因素。他說,“事件視界望遠鏡”項目團隊由多個國家的200多名研究人員組成,其中一部分成員負責觀測工作,所用到的望遠鏡分布在北美、中南美、夏威夷、歐洲甚至南極等地。還有些成員負責數據分析、有些進行數字模擬等等,這個龐大團隊的分工合作相當復雜。

  談到黑洞照片的技術難點,王仲說,這次科學發現采用的測量技術被稱為“甚長基線干涉測量”。在長波波段,這是非常成熟和常用的觀測手段,但是對黑洞而言,普通的長波觀測分辨率是不夠的,必須在更短的1毫米左右的特殊波段進行。

  問題在于,這個波段的信號相對于噪聲非常微弱。此外,在這個波段測量所需要的數據量極大,以至于現有光纜也不足以傳輸,而是需要通過搬運大量硬盤來傳數據。

  他說,為了確保數據分析的可靠性,該團隊在全球四個不同地方的分支各自獨立對2017年所獲得的原始觀測數據進行了分析,得到了極為相似的結果,大大增加了他們對最終圖像的信心。

  王仲認為,這次天文成果的獲得表明了國際合作的重要性,即使有了強有力的科學實驗設備,要獲得高價值的新發現仍需要通力合作,以及恒心與耐心。




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